How does a torque converter work on a car

## How Does a Torque Converter Work?

A torque converter is a hydrodynamic fluid coupling that transmits power from the engine to the transmission in a car. It is a key component of automatic transmissions, and it allows the engine to operate at a higher speed than the wheels, even when the car is stopped.

### Construction

The torque converter consists of three main components:

Impeller: The impeller is connected to the engine’s crankshaft and rotates at the same speed as the engine. It is shaped like a turbine, and it has a series of blades that are angled to direct fluid flow.
Turbine: The turbine is connected to the transmission and rotates at a slower speed than the engine. It also has a series of blades that are angled to direct fluid flow.
Stator: The stator is located between the impeller and the turbine. It has a series of curved vanes that are designed to redirect fluid flow.

### Operation

When the engine is running, the impeller spins and pumps fluid through the torque converter. The fluid is directed towards the turbine, which causes it to rotate. The stator redirects the fluid back towards the impeller, which creates a continuous flow of fluid.

The difference in speed between the impeller and the turbine creates a torque multiplication effect. This means that the torque converter can transmit more torque from the engine to the transmission than is actually produced by the engine.

The torque converter also acts as a fluid flywheel. This means that it absorbs and releases energy, which helps to smooth out engine vibrations and reduce driveline shock.

### Types of Torque Converters

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There are two main types of torque converters:

Stall-type torque converters: Stall-type torque converters have a high stall speed, which means that they can slip significantly when the car is at a standstill. This type of torque converter is used in most automatic transmissions.
Lock-up torque converters: Lock-up torque converters have a low stall speed, which means that they lock up almost immediately when the car is moving. This type of torque converter is used in some high-performance vehicles.

## Advantages of Torque Converters

Torque converters offer a number of advantages, including:

Torque multiplication: Torque converters can multiply the torque that is produced by the engine, which makes them ideal for use in vehicles that need to tow or haul heavy loads.
Fluid flywheel: Torque converters act as a fluid flywheel, which helps to smooth out engine vibrations and reduce driveline shock.
Smooth shifting: Torque converters allow the transmission to shift gears smoothly, without any jerking or hesitation.

## Disadvantages of Torque Converters

Torque converters also have some disadvantages, including:

Power loss: Torque converters can cause some power loss due to the slippage that occurs when the car is at a standstill.
Heat generation: Torque converters can generate a lot of heat, which can shorten their lifespan.
Cost: Torque converters are relatively expensive to manufacture and maintain.

### Conclusion

Torque converters are an important component of automatic transmissions. They allow the engine to operate at a higher speed than the wheels, even when the car is stopped. Torque converters also provide a number of advantages, including torque multiplication, fluid flywheel action, and smooth shifting. However, they also have some disadvantages, including power loss, heat generation, and cost.

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